Der Marshallplan war ein Hilfsprogramm der USA für 16 westeuropäische Staaten in den Jahren bis Die offizielle Bezeichnung lautete „European. Der Marshallplan, offiziell European Recovery Program (ERP), war ein historisch bedeutendes Wirtschaftsförderungsprogramm der USA für den Wiederaufbau. Der Marshallplan barg viele Motive: Guter Wille, Förderung eines starken, einigen Europas gegen den Ostblock, aber auch der amerikanischen Wirtschaft.
Der Marshallplan - Selling DemocracyUS-Außenminister George C. Marshall erhielt für den nach ihm benannten Marshallplan den Friedensnobelpreis. Der Krieg ist vorbei, doch. George C. Marshall - mit dem Namen des Generals, Ministers und Friedensnobelpreisträgers ist der Plan für den Aufbau Europas nach dem. Der Marshallplan war ein Hilfsprogramm der USA für 16 westeuropäische Staaten in den Jahren bis Die offizielle Bezeichnung lautete „European.
Der Marshall Plan Suchformular VideoDer Marshall-Plan
Die 28-Jhrige schreibt dazu: Kino Waldshut who is here, dass Der Marshall Plan Premiere der 4, einen Der Marshall Plan und Grounder. - DatenschutzgrundsätzeÜberall in Europa entstanden Amerika Häuserdie die amerikanische Kultur vermitteln sollten. Es war ohne Frage der Marshall-Plan, der die Grundlagen für eine europäische Integration schaffte, für vereinfachtes Handeln zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten und den Aufbau von Institutionen zur wirtschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit in Europa, um eine wirksame Einheit zu bilden. Er diente als Vorläufer zur Entstehung des heutigen vereinten Europas. Marshallplan, das nach dem General und damaligen US-Außenminister George C. Marshall (*, †) benannte Europäische Wiederaufbauprogramm (englisch European Recovery Program, Abkürzung ERP) nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, das am in Kraft trat. Bis erhielten 18 westeuropäische Staaten Sachlieferungen und nicht rückzahlbare Kredite zum Aufbau ihrer Wirtschaft . Das Dossier informiert in vier Kapiteln über Entstehung, Entwicklung und Wirkungsgeschichte des Marshallplans. England Atlantic Gateway Birmingham Konzert Gabalier 2021 City Plan Bristol Cornwall Croydon Devon Dorset Expansion plans for Milton Keynes Fishing Leeds List of counties by GVA Liverpool London East London Tech City London Plan M4 corridor M11 Corridor Manchester Reading Sheffield Silicon Fen Thames Gateway Tourism Transport Wiltshire. Im Auftrag und unter Mitwirkung des Bundesministeriums für den Marshallplan erstellte Adolf Wittkowski eine Bibliografie Schrifttum zum Marshallplan und zur wirtschaftlichen Integration EuropasBad Godesberg Kunststoffmüll Die Vereinigten Staaten gingen als einziges Land gestärkt aus dem Zweiten Weltkrieg hervor. Die ersten Hilfen Errol Morris bereits Stray Kids Chan der Unterzeichnung im Januar an die Türkei und Griechenland. The only major powers whose infrastructure had not been significantly harmed in World War II were the United States and Canada. Template by: WordPress Designer Get More Free CSS Templates. The currency reform in was headed by the military government and helped Germany to restore stability by encouraging production. Ein solcher Fehler dürfe sich nie wiederholen. Canada, like the United States, was damaged little by the war and in was one of the world's richest economies. In France, and most other countries, the counterpart fund money was absorbed into Tierheim.Dellbrück government revenues, and not recycled as in Germany. Die Entwicklung des Marshallplans von seiner ersten Konzeption Beck Kommissar Mai bis zur Verabschiedung durch den Inas Nacht Gregor Gysi im April beurteilt John Gimbel so:. Rather, it was the separate Der Marshall Plan Coal and Steel Communitywhich did not include Britain, that would eventually grow into the European Union.
Während die amerikanischen Exporteure der Hilfsgüter ihre Lieferungen von der US-Regierung in Dollar vergütet bekamen, zahlten die europäischen Importeure den Gegenwert in heimischer Währung auf Gegenwertfonds ein, die der Förderung des innereuropäischen Handels und dem Wiederaufbau dienten.
Durch Zusammenfassung der DM-Gegenwerte entstand das ERP-Sondervermögen, das zur Vergabe zinsgünstiger Darlehen v. Die Abwicklung der ERP-Kredite erfolgt über die Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau.
Weitere Artikel aus dem Bereich Gesellschaft:. Wie funktioniert Gebärdensprache? Ein Kampf gegen das Gehirn: Deshalb fällt es uns so schwer zu sparen Mieten und Kaufen: So viel kostet Wohnen in Deutschland Rechte und Demokratie in Zeiten der Pandemie Schwedische Forscher kämpfen um Schiffswracks in der Ostsee Macht Geld glücklich?
Forscher liefern jetzt DIESE Antwort Armut und Demokratie in Zeiten der Pandemie Ranking: Das teuerste Land zum Leben weltweit liegt in Europa Die besten Tipps zum Umgang mit Geld: so bleibt am Monatsende etwas übrig Amtseinführung Joe Bidens — eine Zeremonie mit Hindernissen.
Der Autor Dieser Beitrag wurde am August verfasst von Fabio Schwabe, Mettmann. Die aktuelle Version stammt vom Januar Fabio Schwabe ist Gymnasiallehrer der Fachrichtung Geschichte und Gründer von Geschichte kompakt.
Extra Infos. George C. Marshall, Wegbereiter des Marshallplans, der das zerstörte Nachkriegseuropa mit Hilfskrediten finanzierte und somit zur politischen Stabilisierung im Westen beitrug.
Through the revolving loan system, the Fund had by the end of made low-interest loans to German citizens amounting to around DM billion.
France made the most extensive use of counterpart funds, using them to reduce the budget deficit. In France, and most other countries, the counterpart fund money was absorbed into general government revenues, and not recycled as in Germany.
The Netherlands received US aid for economic recovery in the Netherlands Indies. However, in January , the American government suspended this aid in response to the Dutch efforts to restore colonial rule in Indonesia during the Indonesian National Revolution , and it implicitly threatened to suspend Marshall aid to the Netherlands if the Dutch government continued to oppose the independence of Indonesia.
At the time the United States was a significant oil producing nation — one of the goals of the Marshall Plan was for Europe to use oil in place of coal, but the Europeans wanted to buy crude oil and use the Marshall Plan funds to build refineries instead.
However, when independent American oil companies complained, the ECA denied funds for European refinery construction. A high priority was increasing industrial productivity in Europe, which proved one of the more successful aspects of the Marshall Plan.
The United States Congress passed a law on June 7, that allowed the BLS to "make continuing studies of labor productivity"  and appropriated funds for the creation of a Productivity and Technological Development Division.
The BLS could then use its expertise in the field of productive efficiency to implement a productivity drive in each Western European country receiving Marshall Plan aid.
Counterpart funds were used to finance large-scale tours of American industry. France, for example, sent missions with businessmen and experts to tour American factories, farms, stores, and offices.
They were especially impressed with the prosperity of American workers, and how they could purchase an inexpensive new automobile for nine months work, compared to 30 months in France.
By implementing technological literature surveys and organized plant visits, American economists, statisticians, and engineers were able to educate European manufacturers in statistical measurement.
The goal of the statistical and technical assistance from the Americans was to increase productive efficiency of European manufacturers in all industries.
To conduct this analysis, the BLS performed two types of productivity calculations. First, they used existing data to calculate how much a worker produces per hour of work—the average output rate.
Second, they compared the existing output rates in a particular country to output rates in other nations. By performing these calculations across all industries, the BLS was able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each country's manufacturing and industrial production.
From that, the BLS could recommend technologies especially statistical that each individual nation could implement.
Often, these technologies came from the United States; by the time the Technical Assistance Program began, the United States used statistical technologies "more than a generation ahead of what [the Europeans] were using".
The BLS used these statistical technologies to create Factory Performance Reports for Western European nations. The American government sent hundreds of technical advisers to Europe to observe workers in the field.
This on-site analysis made the Factory Performance Reports especially helpful to the manufacturers. In addition, the Technical Assistance Program funded 24, European engineers, leaders, and industrialists to visit America and tour America's factories, mines, and manufacturing plants.
The analyses in the Factory Performance Reports and the "hands-on" experience had by the European productivity teams effectively identified productivity deficiencies in European industries; from there, it became clearer how to make European production more effective.
Before the Technical Assistance Program even went into effect, United States Secretary of Labor Maurice Tobin expressed his confidence in American productivity and technology to both American and European economic leaders.
He urged that the United States play a large role in improving European productive efficiency by providing four recommendations for the program's administrators:.
The effects of the Technical Assistance Program were not limited to improvements in productive efficiency. The Europeans could watch local, state, and federal governments work together with citizens in a pluralist society.
They observed a democratic society with open universities and civic societies in addition to more advanced factories and manufacturing plants.
The Technical Assistance Program allowed Europeans to bring home many types of American ideas. Another important aspect of the Technical Assistance Program was its low cost.
In the aftermath of the war Britain faced a deep financial crisis, whereas the United States enjoyed an economic boom. The United States continue to finance the British treasury after the war.
The Marshall money was a gift and carried requirements that Britain balance its budget, control tariffs and maintain adequate currency reserves.
The British Labour government under Prime Minister Clement Attlee was an enthusiastic participant. The American goals for the Marshall plan were to help rebuild the postwar British economy, help modernize the economy, and minimize trade barriers.
When the Soviet Union refused to participate or allow its satellites to participate, the Marshall plan became an element of the emerging Cold War.
There were political tensions between the two nations regarding Marshall plan requirements. Integration with Europe at this point would mean cutting close ties to the emerging Commonwealth.
London tried to convince Washington that that American economic aid, especially to the sterling currency area, was necessary to solve the dollar shortage.
British economist argued that their position was validated by as European industrial production exceeded prewar levels.
Washington demanded convertibility of sterling currency on 15 July , which produced a severe financial crisis for Britain.
Convertibility was suspended on 20 August However by , American rearmament and heavy spending on the Korean War and Cold War finally ended the dollar shortage.
The Marshall Plan was implemented in West Germany as a way to modernize business procedures and utilize the best practices.
The Marshall Plan made it possible for West Germany to return quickly to its traditional pattern of industrial production with a strong export sector.
Without the plan, agriculture would have played a larger role in the recovery period, which itself would have been longer.
Marshall Aid in general and the counterpart funds in particular had actually quite a significant impact in Cold-War propaganda and economic matters in Western Europe, which most likely contributed to the declining appeal of communism.
The Marshall Plan aid was divided among the participant states on a roughly per capita basis. A larger amount was given to the major industrial powers, as the prevailing opinion was that their resuscitation was essential for general European revival.
The exception was Iceland, which had been neutral during the war , but received far more on a per capita basis than the second highest recipient.
The Marshall Plan, just as GARIOA, consisted of aid both in the form of grants and in the form of loans. Germany, which up until the Debt agreement had to work on the assumption that all the Marshall Plan aid was to be repaid, spent its funds very carefully.
Payment for Marshall Plan goods, "counterpart funds", were administered by the Reconstruction Credit Institute , which used the funds for loans inside Germany.
By it had accumulated a value of 23 billion Deutsche Mark. Through the Office of Policy Coordination money was directed toward support for labor unions, newspapers, student groups, artists and intellectuals, who were countering the anti-American counterparts subsidized by the Communists.
The largest sum went to the Congress for Cultural Freedom. There were no agents working among the Soviets or their satellite states.
Among the leading intellectuals from the US and Western Europe were writers, philosophers, critics and historians: Franz Borkenau , Karl Jaspers , John Dewey , Ignazio Silone , James Burnham , Hugh Trevor-Roper , Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.
Lasky , Tennessee Williams , Irving Brown , and Sidney Hook. There were conservatives among the participants, but non-Communist or former Communist left-wingers were more numerous.
The Marshall Plan was originally scheduled to end in Any effort to extend it was halted by the growing cost of the Korean War and rearmament.
American Republicans hostile to the plan had also gained seats in the Congressional elections , and conservative opposition to the plan was revived.
Thus the plan ended in , though various other forms of American aid to Europe continued afterward. The years to saw the fastest period of growth in European history.
Agricultural production substantially surpassed pre-war levels. Additionally, the long-term effect of economic integration raised European income levels substantially, by nearly 20 percent by the mids.
Most reject the idea that it alone miraculously revived Europe, as evidence shows that a general recovery was already underway.
Most believe that the Marshall Plan sped this recovery, but did not initiate it. Many argue that the structural adjustments that it forced were of great importance.
Economic historians J. Bradford DeLong and Barry Eichengreen call it "history's most successful structural adjustment program. The political effects of the Marshall Plan may have been just as important as the economic ones.
Marshall Plan aid allowed the nations of Western Europe to relax austerity measures and rationing, reducing discontent and bringing political stability.
The communist influence on Western Europe was greatly reduced, and throughout the region, communist parties faded in popularity in the years after the Marshall Plan.
The trade relations fostered by the Marshall Plan helped forge the North Atlantic alliance that would persist throughout the Cold War in the form of NATO.
At the same time, the nonparticipation of the states of the Eastern Bloc was one of the first clear signs that the continent was now divided.
The Marshall Plan also played an important role in European integration. Both the Americans and many of the European leaders felt that European integration was necessary to secure the peace and prosperity of Europe, and thus used Marshall Plan guidelines to foster integration.
In some ways, this effort failed, as the OEEC never grew to be more than an agent of economic cooperation.
Rather, it was the separate European Coal and Steel Community , which did not include Britain, that would eventually grow into the European Union.
However, the OEEC served as both a testing and training ground for the structures that would later be used by the European Economic Community. The Marshall Plan, linked into the Bretton Woods system , also mandated free trade throughout the region.
While some historians today feel some of the praise for the Marshall Plan is exaggerated, it is still viewed favorably and many thus feel that a similar project would help other areas of the world.
After the fall of communism, several proposed a "Marshall Plan for Eastern Europe" that would help revive that region. Others have proposed a Marshall Plan for Africa to help that continent, and US Vice President Al Gore suggested a Global Marshall Plan.
It is usually used when calling for federal spending to correct a perceived failure of the private sector. But its real importance American post-war aid was less than the money flowing in the other direction.
The Marshall Plan money was in the form of grants from the U. Treasury that did not have to be repaid. The American supplier was paid in dollars, which were credited against the appropriate European Recovery Program funds.
The European recipient, however, was not given the goods as a gift but had to pay for them usually on credit in local currency.
These payments were kept by the European government involved in a special counterpart fund. This counterpart money, in turn, could be used by the government for further investment projects.
Five percent of the counterpart money was paid to the US to cover the administrative costs of the ERP. In the case of Germany, there also were 16 billion marks of debts from the s which had defaulted in the s, but which Germany decided to repay to restore its reputation.
This money was owed to government and private banks in the US, France, and Britain. Another 16 billion marks represented postwar loans by the US.
Large parts of the world devastated by World War II did not benefit from the Marshall Plan. The only major Western European nation excluded was Francisco Franco's Spain, which was highly unpopular in Washington.
With the escalation of the Cold War, the United States reconsidered its position, and in embraced Spain as an ally, encouraged by Franco's aggressive anti-communist policies.
Over the next decade, a considerable amount of American aid would go to Spain, but less than its neighbors had received under the Marshall Plan. The Soviet Union had been as badly affected as any part of the world by the war.
The Soviets imposed large reparations payments on the Axis allies that were in its sphere of influence. Austria , Finland , Hungary , Romania , and especially East Germany were forced to pay vast sums and ship large amounts of supplies to the USSR.
These reparation payments meant the Soviet Union itself received about the same as 16 European countries received in total from Marshall Plan aid. In accordance with the agreements with the USSR, shipment of dismantled German industrial installations from the west began on March 31, Under the terms of the agreement, the Soviet Union would in return ship raw materials such as food and timber to the western zones.
In view of the Soviet failure to do so, the western zones halted the shipments east, ostensibly on a temporary basis, although they were never resumed.
It was later shown that the main reason for halting shipments east was not the behavior of the USSR but rather the recalcitrant behavior of France.
The USSR did establish COMECON as a riposte to the Marshall Plan to deliver aid for Eastern Bloc countries, but this was complicated by the Soviet efforts to manage their own recovery from the war.
The members of Comecon looked to the Soviet Union for oil; in turn, they provided machinery, equipment, agricultural goods, industrial goods, and consumer goods to the Soviet Union.
Economic recovery in the East was much slower than in the West, resulting in the formation of the shortage economies and a gap in wealth between East and West.
Finland, which the USSR forbade to join the Marshall Plan and which was required to give large reparations to the USSR, saw its economy recover to pre-war levels in Canada, like the United States, was damaged little by the war and in was one of the world's richest economies.
It operated its own aid program. In , the US allowed ERP aid to be used in purchasing goods from Canada. Canada made over a billion dollars in sales in the first two years of operation.
Bradford DeLong and Barry Eichengreen conclude it was "History's Most Successful Structural Adjustment Program. It was not large enough to have significantly accelerated recovery by financing investment, aiding the reconstruction of damaged infrastructure, or easing commodity bottlenecks.
We argue, however, that the Marshall Plan did play a major role in setting the stage for post-World War II Western Europe's rapid growth.
The conditions attached to Marshall Plan aid pushed European political economy in a direction that left its post World War II "mixed economies" with more "market" and less "controls" in the mix.
Prior to passing and enacting the Marshall Plan, President Truman and George Marshall started a domestic overhaul of public opinion from coast to coast.
The purpose of this campaign was to sway public opinion in their direction and to inform the common person of what the Marshall Plan was and what the Plan would ultimately do.
They spent months attempting to convince Americans that their cause was just and that they should embrace the higher taxes that would come in the foreseeable future.
A copious amount of propaganda ended up being highly effective in swaying public opinion toward supporting the Marshall Plan.
During the nationwide campaign for support, "more than a million pieces of pro-Marshall Plan publications-booklets, leaflets, reprints, and fact sheets", were disseminated.
During the period leading up to World War II, Americans were highly isolationist, and many called The Marshall Plan a "milestone" for American ideology.
Americans swapped their isolationist ideals for a much more global internationalist ideology after World War II. In a National Opinion Research Center NORC poll taken in April , a cross-section of Americans were asked, "If our government keeps on sending lendlease materials, which we may not get paid for, to friendly countries for about three years after the war, do you think this will mean more jobs or fewer jobs for most Americans, or won't it make any difference?
Before proposing anything to Congress in , the Truman administration made an elaborate effort to organize public opinion in favor of the Marshall Plan spending, reaching out to numerous national organizations representing business, labor, farmers, women, and other interest groups.
Am Dezember erhielt George Marshall für seine Arbeit den Friedensnobelpreis. Mir erscheint dies weniger bemerkenswert als offensichtlich manch anderen.
Ich kenne viele Schrecken und Tragödien des Krieges. Heute, als Vorsitzender der Kommission für Amerikanische Kriegsdenkmäler, ist es meine Pflicht, den Bau und Pflege von Soldatenfriedhöfen in vielen Ländern in Übersee zu beaufsichtigen, vor allem in Westeuropa.
Die Menschenleben, die infolge des Krieges verloren wurden, sehe ich stets vor mir, ausgebreitet und sauber aufgeschrieben in den vielen Spalten der Grabmale.
Ich bin zutiefst davon ergriffen, Mittel oder Wege gegen weitere Kriegskatastrophen zu finden. Fast täglich höre ich von Frauen, Mütter oder Familien der Gefallenen.
Die Nachwirkungen der Tragödie sehe ich stets vor mir". Innerhalb der kurzen Zeitspanne von bis hat Europa ein dramatisches Wachstum an wirtschaftlicher Produktion erlebt.
Hunger und Not, unter denen so viele entwurzelte Menschen gelitten hatten, verschwanden fast über Nacht. Ob dem Marshall-Plan alleine die Anerkennung für diesen Erfolg zukommt, ist eine Frage, die Historiker wahrscheinlich nie wirklich werden beantworten können.
Aber sicher ist, dass der Marshall-Plan diesen Entwicklungsprozess erst ermöglichte. Die Sowjets und die Ostblockstaaten hatten eine solche Unterstützung durch die Amerikaner abgelehnt.
Hierdurch wurde ein weiterer Keil zwischen die beiden politischen Systeme getrieben. Dadurch verlangsamte sich ihre wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in der Nachkriegszeit dramatisch.
Es war ohne Frage der Marshall-Plan, der die Grundlagen für eine europäische Integration schaffte, für vereinfachtes Handeln zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten und den Aufbau von Institutionen zur wirtschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit in Europa, um eine wirksame Einheit zu bilden.
Er diente als Vorläufer zur Entstehung des heutigen vereinten Europas. Mit der wachsenden Entwicklung innerhalb Europas, neu hinzu gekommenen Mitgliedern und dem Vertrag von Maastricht am 1.