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Each change to the rotor resulted in lower rotor electrical resistance. There were numerous other very small changes, such as style of the brushes and brush holder, built-in grounding of the D- terminal, etc.
The Authorities Police models, in general, begin charging at a slightly lower engine rpm; but the total maximum output is reduced.
The Authorities Voltage Regulator is set to a higher voltage. The final changes to the Airheads alternators used slightly lower power output alternators; that is, instead of the watt alternators, they had watt alternators, but the charging began earlier, just like the Authorities models.
Otherwise, most any years of the Airheads Bosch charging system alternator parts can be interchanged, and work 'adequately'. The voltage regulator that controls alternator output is not part of the alternator brush assembly, as it is in nearly all more modern cars and motorcycles.
The GEN lamp, before charging begins, is fed by current coming through the ignition switch from the battery. That switch is also in the circuit sending current to the GEN lamp, besides its operation shutting off most everything electrically in the bike.
Some riders never use that kill switch, so if you are having some problems, I suggest you move the kill switch back and forth half a dozen times and then see if your GEN lamp is working more properly.
When you do testing on the system, you need the kill switch centered "ON" or "RUN" position. The Kill switch has been the cause for a few rather rare instances of ignition problems, described later in this article.
There are so many combinations possible, that I have not bothered to chart all the possibilities for you. The extra stator terminal is electrically called the WYE terminal, but most just use "Y" or 'center tap terminal".
The stator diameter or mm is the measurement of the diameter of the stator metal portion that fits a short distance into the timing chest cavity.
Three phase stator windings most any alternator, generally are actually three separate windings, so there are six wires.
BMW mounted the diode board on rubber mounts on some models. This was a bad idea. Solid metal aftermarket mounts perform electrically much better, and may offer slight additional diode board cooling; and there are no rubber mountings to deteriorate.
This is a VERY worthwhile upgrade for very little cost. BMW has used a variety of battery ampere-hour sizes, with two basic sizes of battery case over the years.
Any of these batteries will start and operate the engine. The difference is the amount of reserve capacity; and extra cranking ability at cold temperatures.
The tendency is to think of the various stock Bosch alternators as only or watts of output. Actually, outputs are specified at , R90S and Authorities , , , The last of the Airheads had watt alternators, very low ohm rotors, and charging began a slight bit lower in rpm than earlier models.
That was a tradeoff; slightly lower rpm for beginning of any charging, but a lower maximum output. The R90S ROTOR diameter, and perhaps STATOR inside diameter, were changed due to the rpm attainable on that model actually, MUCH more likely because many were raced, as there are later Airhead models rated at more maximum RPM , "said" to avoid the rotor from striking the stator laminations, due to crankshaft whipping.
For practical non-racing purposes, any of the older rotors will work; and, in fact, I have not heard of a R90S with the larger rotor having any problems in up to and considerably past redline RPM.
The Authorities model has the same watt rating as the R90S; but, is designed to produce usable output at a slightly lower rpm than all the others, except the very last Airheads.
One might find almost any combination of parts when examining an Airhead charging system on any motorcycle. NOT all combinations are wise or will work properly.
In general, the only low-charging problems that might occur is with the last rotors 2. All Airhead Voltage Regulators are physically interchangeable, but use of the mechanical regulator is not recommended by me for and later Airheads, due to the electrical noise of their vibrating contacts possibly interfering with the electronic ignition, AND, the higher current required by the later rotors.
Aftermarket alternator manufacturer's have solved the problems of those needing more alternator output, and outputs up to watts rated with alternators mounted in the SAME ORIGINAL BMW MOUNTING HOLE are available.
See the Omega alternators, etc. There are NO current regulators, only voltage regulators, in the Airhead alternator systems. Alternators are usually considered to be self-limiting for current output.
The first voltage regulators on the Airheads were electro-mechanically operated, and located in a metal can. These had a mechanically adjustable relay, the contacts of which fed electrical current to the rotor.
These contacts began to vibrate or oscillate open or closed as the battery voltage actually, alternator output reached the adjusted-for value. There are articles on all the regulators on this website The mechanical regulator was changed to an electronics type during the transition time to an electronic ignition, probably to eliminate electronic noise from the electrical-sparking at the mechanical regulator contacts, and, to better deal with the higher rotor current.
The first generation electronic regulator was in a somewhat similar metal can as was the earlier mechanical regulator, but the metal can was shorter.
These SHORT METAL CAN electronic regulators were also adjustable, the adjustment being sealed by a droplet of rather tenacious sealing paint on a part inside them, but the regulators could be rather easily modified for full adjustability by removing the paint or replacing the tiny control.
An article on this website explains how-to. The last of the regulators were all in flat plastic boxes, fully transistorized, not made to be adjustable although possible.
These came in several varieties, the very last versions being slightly upgraded to better handle the possible increased rotor current of the 2. All sorts of information on these various regulators are in separate articles on this website.
Aftermarket regulators, adjustable and non-adjustable are available. In the early 's, BMW had many diode board failures with what was always said to be Wehrle brand diode boards.
The truth is that some with Bosch names on them had the same problems. I have always suspected that the two brands traded manufactured parts between the factories, or there was a part-ownership, or sub-contractor thing going on.
Extra heat was in this area on the faired RS and RT models, making things even worse. Almost none of the diodes themselves failed.
The bad solder joints are fixable. LONG ago, Oak published that method in AIRMAIL. It is NOT practical for most to even attempt this; I've done it, and don't want to, ever again, and my primary business is electronics repairs.
I have done lasting repairs so far! That is what I would recommend, if your problem is one or more of those solder joints. You can VISUALLY see the problem, if present If you want to try an easy fix, this may work for you.
Plumbers use a type of solder that is mixture of tin and lead. You probably can get a few inches of from a plumber.
This type of solder comes as 0. It must be used with standard rosin flux. The proposed fix on the diode boards is to use a very sharp Xacto or other knife blade, on QUITE A FLAT ANGLE , scraping away the outer colored coating all around the diode solder joint.
You must be thorough, using the tip of the knife to get right to the edge of the diode wire. You must clean that diode wire with mild scraping with the knife.
When cleaning the soldering area do not scrape away the copper. The copper soldering pad should be enlarged for some distance so that the solder you add will spread to a larger area.
If you want to first try chemical cleaning which I DO SUGGEST , use a strong gel-type paint remover Clean it off, after it hopefully works to remove the enamel coating, with a small rag with water on it, and then Q-tips with home type isopropyl rubbing alcohol.
If the paint remover does not work and it may do nothing , then use the knife edge. The copper printed area, with no enamel coating left, MUST be clean and shiny!!
I go so far as to use a common CLEAN pencil eraser to polish the copper to quite shiny, before soldering. You need to use common soldering flux of the rosin type.
Liberal application is fine. Cleanup with common alcohol. AFAIK, is sold only as a solid core As I noted, the stub wire of the diode may need careful Xacto knife cleaning all around it too.
The wire will not solder properly if it is not clean, all-around; this is critical! Leave a good sized amount of solder.
Preparation is your friend here. A common large tip soldering iron MUST be used. I suggest one with a fairly substantial mass to its tip Insufficient heat from a too-small soldering iron tip will NOT produce a good solder joint.
This is probably too expensive to seriously consider, considering the labor It can be done, and you may be able to find the large size diodes at a good price; and can get a lot of satisfaction about DYI.
It is also possible to replace any of the small diodes The information on diode part numbers, etc. You could purchase a brand-new later board, or an aftermarket high power diode board.
The stock board is certainly adequate You might find an original diode board in very good condition You can also service a mechanical regulator, article is on this website.
Most any VR from a car that has the same three prongs and same case mounting, will work OK. I prefer modifying the early Bosch electronic regulator the type in the metal can , so the adjustment is easier to do on this website in detail.
They have them quite reasonably priced. Also OK are the higher voltage non-adjustable types, usually The Of course, you can get any voltage you like with the adjustable regulators.
DISregard those that say the headlights burn out quicker. It is true that the smaller bulbs will burn out SLIGHTLY quicker, but that is a quite SMALL effect.
What IS true is that on a FLOODED battery, the higher voltage VR's do use a bit more water over time; but, the batteries last longer, if the VR is properly adjusted.
Earlier regulators MAY hold up. Yes, if anal enough, you can modify earlier regulators to handle more current. That involves changing the power transistor to a higher rated type, and possibly increasing the heat dissipation method probably NOT necessary.
Interestingly, it is difficult to find the current rating of any of the VR's The GEN lamp, necessary in the stock system to properly initiate charging, does not fail often.
There is a modification that allows the system to start up even if the lamp fails and possibly make a very slight improvement on rpm at which charging begins.
How it all works: This is where reading article 14A and 15A may help in understanding. In a motorcycle with a KILL switch, when ON Run position the electricity also flows through it.
This small current must travel to electrical ground in order to have the lamp illuminate. It does that by passing through the voltage regulator via its Df terminal Blue-black ; then to the Df terminal at the brush holder for the rotor.
The electricity goes through one carbon brush into the rotor via the rotor slip ring The GEN lamp is LIT brightly.
A proper and correct circuit sketch is below. Do not use the buchanan1. Long ago I had a corrected version of Buchanan's in one of my articles via link.
I removed it, gave up trying to get him to fix his. His sketch, similar to the one below, is not correct!! Use the one below!
The sketch "was" similar, but not the same as Buchanan's. Arrows show direction of current flow. Note that electricaly speaking as a nerdy engineer, current flow is from negative to positive, not as shown in the sketch.
We engineers can argue all day on why one or the other is correct! When the engine is started the rotor is rotating as it is fastened to the end of the crankshaft.
Thus, rotor magnetic field is transformed into Alternating Current electricity in the non-moving stator windings.
These small diodes, as rpm increases, produce a VERY considerably larger current than the lamp could supply to the regulator. That larger current is needed to begin to more fully power the rotor.
The system converts mechanical movement into usable electricity. A considerable current is possible, as much as 5 amperes on the much later low ohms rotors, and it would unnecessarily also heat the rotor.
All-in-all, a lamp is near perfect for the job it has to do. There are six large high power diodes mounted on the diode board.
They connect to the stator main output windings, the same as do the smaller diodes. As the rpm rises just a bit more than for lamp-extinguishing, these large six diodes will begin to pass a fair amount of current, but their output connection is directly to the battery.
More on those 6 diodes in the next paragraph. The diode board connections via printed copper 'wires' have 3 of those large diodes connected to the chassis negative side of battery.
That connection-wire is NOT FUSED. The extremely high resistance of the diodes if current tries to flow in the reverse direction prevents the battery from discharging back into the alternator when the engine is not running key on or off.
There actually is a TEENSY bit of "leakage current" usually under a milliampere or so. If diodes failed by 'leaking' considerably more current, the battery CAN discharge, over time, from that.
Leaky diodes can also cause strange effects on waveform and other things, which I will not get into in this article. However that method will include any other current flow from the system, including a clock, etc.
Either testing method can be used; but best to do it at the diode board connection. The electronic type of voltage regulator VR has an internal voltage reference called a Zener diode.
The regulator receives the output of the SMALL diodes as previously described, and compares that to the VR internal reference zener diode mechanical regulator does this with spring and solenoid coil which then operate the points.
When the alternator output voltage rises higher than the design voltage, the voltage regulator reduces the current flow into the rotor, which reduces the stator output.
The VR is NOT a shunt type, that is, the alternator output is not shunted to ground, thus the regulation method is of high efficiency.
The mechanical regulator regulates by separating two contacts in the regulator to reduce the charging.
While maintaining the voltage the regulator was set for, the VR must turn on and off rapidly, once the battery voltage reaches the desired set voltage, to maintain the voltage within a narrow range.
The VR points spark gently during this actual oscillating voltage regulation. This produces some electrical noise into the wiring The later low ohms rotors are not good for the mechanical regulator which was not used after the 's , as the rotor could draw more current than the mechanical regulator points were designed for.
The VR can be serviced, article on this website. Poor charging can come from quite a few causes, OFTEN from more than one problem at the same time, which makes finding the problem s more involved.
Check any and all connections, including the big battery wires, that they are clean, tight, no strands of wire are broken.
When you have the front cover of the engine removed ALWAYS disconnect the battery negative leads before trying to remove the cover , you can eyeball and feel-test the stator connections, those push-on connections need to fit quite tightly.
Be sure that under the starter motor cover that the connections to the starter solenoid switch are all tight.
Be sure that the red wires at the starter relay located along the motorcycle backbone tube, under the fuel tank are CLEAN AND TIGHT.
If you have a plug-in starter relay, UNplug it, then clean the male and female connectors as best you can, then re-plug-in the relay.
Everything in the alternator area should look good, including the diode board. What fails? Anything and everything has failed at one time or another.
Sometimes there are accumulated voltage drops in the system, and they are easy to trace down with a multimeter.
GEN lamp alternator lamp PROBLEMS: Many problems show up by the GEN lamp lighting up at the wrong time, or not lighting up, or it is irregular or dim.
Gen lamp burnout is not unknown, but is relatively rare. The lamp is necessary in the stock system to initiate proper charging.
GEN lamps can be off, bright, dim, irregular, etc. On most Airheads the GEN lamp extinguishes a few hundred RPM over idle.
Troubleshooting a dead not lighted or does so irregularly GEN lamp: The problem may not be a bad lamp; that is actually unusual, as the GEN lamp seldom burns out.
Sometimes there is a crack in the socket area where the lamp fits. A bad connection for the lamp can include at the lamp base, the pod plug connection, or inside the external pod plug itself.
More often the rotor has opened electrically; or a brush, or both brushes, are very badly worn. Worn brushes frequently cause problems, but usually the lamp is then intermittent, especially with rotor RPM.
The reason rotor RPM is involved is that there is always some slip ring runout, even though slight, so typically one brush, worn more than the other, gets intermittent in its contact with the slip ring.
Here are some simple tests: Turn on Ignition. I assume the lamp is not lighted. If the GEN lamp lights up, the problem is in the plug, or, the mating male parts in the pod.
Disconnect battery removing all the wires to the negative post will do. Your browser is not up to date and may not be compatible with our website.
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